Kidney Dialysis Equipment with Disposable
The principle of hemodialysis is the same as other methods of dialysis; it involves diffusion of solutes across a semipermeable membrane. Hemodialysis utilizes counter current flow, where the dialysate is flowing in the opposite direction to blood flow in the extracorporeal circuit. Counter-current flow maintains the concentration gradient across the membrane at a maximum and increases the efficiency of the dialysis
Water treatment plant
The process of haemodialysis is mirrored on the physiological principles of the kidney. Specifically the process of diffusion, where blood is made to flow in a counter current to the direction of dialysis fluid and ultrafiltration, where fluid is pressured across a semi permeable membrane using a convective force.
A large quantity of high purity dialysis water is required to safely perform a dialysis treatment. A single 4-hour dialysis treatment can require up to 150L of dialysis quality “ultra pure” water. Producing this high quality water is a multi step filtration process requiring several levels of processing before it is of a sufficient quality to be presented to the dialyser membrane and the patient’s blood. Depending on the quality of the source water, the production of this 150L of dialysis quality water, can require the processing of up to 1000L of drinking quality water. This results in between 60 – 90% of source water being rejected to waste.
Dialyzer Reuse Machine
Patients only reuse their own dialyzer, meaning that no other patient has or will ever use it. Dialyzers are never shared between patients. After your dialysis session is complete, a facility member (either your renal nurse or a patient care technician) will take you off the dialysis machine and seal your dialyzer, which is labeled with your name, in a plastic bag. The dialyzer is then sent to a reuse technician who will follow strict procedures to make sure your dialyzer is clean, sterile and in good working condition before you use it again.
The reuse technician will first do a visual inspection of the dialyzer for blood or fiber clots. The technician will also note the number of times the dialyzer has been used. If the dialyzer is due to be replaced, the technician will replace it with a new one in the size prescribed by the physician. If the dialyzer can be reused, the technician will place it into the reuse machine to start the cleaning process.
The reuse machine cleans the dialyzer using water treated with reverse osmosis. This water is highly purified and cleans the dialyzer without leaving traces of particles and chemicals. After cleaning, the machine performs a pressure test and blood volume test. The pressure test checks for any holes in the dialyzer. The blood volume test ensures that the dialyzer’s capacity is above 80% of the dialyzer’s stated size. If there are any holes in the dialyzer, or if the blood volume is less than 80% of the dialyzer’s size, it is replaced with a new one. If any problems are detected during the reuse test, the reuse machine indicators let the reuse technician know, and the dialyzer is disposed of in the proper manner.
After the reuse machine has cleaned and tested the dialyzer, it will then be filled with disinfectant and stored for at least 11 hours. Just before the patient’s next dialysis treatment, the dialyzer is rinsed with saline solution until all disinfectant is removed. A test is performed to make sure no disinfectant is left in the dialyzer. Once it is tested, the dialyzer is ready to use for the dialysis treatment.